"O seu post como título "CONVERSAS ORTODOXAS" remeteu-me para a demanda do Reino de Preste João. Em vários escritos de historiadores diz-se que Portugal teria feito a procura de Preste João com a finalidade de fugir ao papado de Roma e retornar à originalidade da religião e "das verdades cristãs como foram pregadas na origem do Cristianismo"
O QUE É QUE CORREU MAL?
"Muito obrigado por se ter referido ao livro do Bernard Lewis, que fiquei interessadíssimo em ler. Por coincidência, hoje de manhã li uma página do excelente livro da Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, onde se diz algo que me pareceu divergir um pouco do que percebi ser a tese do Lewis. Permita-me que transcreva os períodos relevantes da pág 40 (edição Harper Collins, 2000):
"The Ottoman state was arguably the most up-to-date in the world during the early sixteenth century.It was, for its time, superbly efficient, had developed a new-style bureaucracy, and encouraged a vibrant intellectual life. The Ottomans were open to other cultures. They were genuinely excited by Western navigational science, stirred by the discoveries of the explorers, and eager to adopt such Western military inventions as gunpowder and firearms. It was the job of the ulema to see how these innovations could be accomodated to the Muhammadan paradigm in Muslim law. The study of jurisprudence (fiqh) did not simply consist in poring over old texts, but also had a challenging dimension. And, at this date, there was no real incompatibility between Islam and the West. Europe was also imbued with the conservative spirit. The Renaissance humanists had tried to renew their culture by a return ad fontes, to the sources. We have seen that it was virtually impossible for ordinary mortals to break with religion entirely. Despite their new inventions, Europeans were still ruled by the conservative ethos until the eighteenth century. It was only when Western modernity replaced the backward-looking mythical way of life with a future-oriented rationalism that some Muslims would begin to find Europe alien."
(José Vaz de Mascarenhas)
LIVROS PROIBIDOS - MEIN KAMPF
"Lembro-me claramente de o ouvir responder à mesma questão há uns anos, aquando de um caso envolvendo skinheads. A propósito da proibição de livros, andei a investigar recentemente a proibição do Ulysses de Joyce nos EUA, onde foi ordenada a sua interdição e destruição por ordem judicial, vindo mais tarde a ser permitida a sua livre circulação. Durante essa investigação acabei por encontrar uma espécie de observatório de restrições à liberdade de expressão da American Library Association (ALA). Foi lá que também encontrei este texto, precisamente sobre a questão de as bibliotecas escolares deverem ou não ter o Mein Kampf nas suas estantes:
"Let us look for a moment at one book that does, in essence, preach genocide—Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf. Few, if any, educators would recommend this book to a student seeking to formulate an individual political perspective. But can a high school library adequately fulfill its mission in a school where a history course covering the Nazi experience is taught, if the fundamental document of the Nazi movement cannot be found for student reference? In such a situation, Mein Kampf—along with other more objective treatments of Hitler’s thought—should probably be in the high school library, funding and space permitting.
But, it may be objected, a book that is purchased and shelved for reference purposes, to help students write term papers and learn to analyze controversial materials, will not necessarily be used solely in this manner. What if a little "Hitler cult" emerges in the school and students begin to read Mein Kampf—or some more contemporary racist work—not as an historical or political document, but as a meaningful tract for our times?
The situation is troubling, but censorship offers no solution. If there is a problem with racism in a school, removing racist materials from the library will not solve it. Indeed, like other efforts to drive the problem underground, such removals may only exacerbate matters. A good school librarian will work with teachers and school officials continually to take the pulse of student interests. If a segment of the student body seems inordinately attracted to materials that run counter to the purposes of democratic education, then the faculty and staff must work to expose the weaknesses of these materials by discussing them with the students—in class if need be—and by directing students to positive alternatives. One special role played by the school library is to educate students about what libraries are. Students should be taught at an early age that the presence of a book in a library, including in the
school library, does not mean that the book is somehow "endorsed" by the librarian or the school. The library is a resource that caters to varied interests; it is a place to go to find out for oneself.
This lesson cannot be taught, however, if the school library is not such a place, if the student is in effect told: Come here to find out the things you want to know, but only if established authorities approve them in advance. The school library has an important role to play in educating young people to respect diversity by itself illustrating the breadth of diverse opinion and taste. "
Censorship and Selection: Issues and Answers to Schools, Third Edition by Henry Reichman.